Also called MIT, this ingredient is often found in antibacterial products.
Unlike some synthetic chemicals, however, this one isn't just a mild skin irritant. A recent study found the chemical may actually be linked to nerve damage, and it's also known to be toxic in several other ways.
Let's figure out how to avoid this one!
What is MIT?
This ingredient is a powerful biocide. That means it's a chemical substance that can control or kill harmful microorganisms. It works well as a preservative in products like shampoo and body care products, helping them to last a long time on the shelf and in your bathroom cabinets without becoming contaminated with unwanted bugs, bacteria, and fungi.
MIT belongs to a group of similar compounds called “isothiazolinones,” which also include the following chemicals:
- Chloromethylisothiazolinone (CMIT)
- Benzisothiazolinone (BIT)
- Octylisothiazolinone (OIT)
- Dichlorooctylisothiazolinone (DCOIT)
You'll find MIT and chemicals like it at low concentrations in “rinse-off” products like shampoos, conditioners, hair colors, body washes, laundry detergents, liquid hand soaps, bubble bath, hand dishwashing soaps, and shampoo/conditioner combinations.
What are the Concerns?
The biggest concern with this ingredient came to light when researchers conducted two recent laboratory studies on rat brain cells, and found that MIT caused damage to those cells. The researchers stated, “a brief exposure to methylisothiazolinone, a widely used industrial and household biocide, is highly toxic to cultured neurons….” The scientists went on to state that these toxic effects had been reported previously, and because of their widespread use, the consequences of chronic human exposure need to be evaluated. What was most concerning about this study was that the exposure was only 10 minutes long.
What did the cosmetic industry say about this? The Cosmetic, Toiletry, and Fragrance Association (CFTA) issued a response stating that MIT is safe as it is used in cosmetic formulas because the exposure is so low. Indeed, in 2004, the European Scientific Committee on Cosmetic Products and Non-Food Products Intended for Consumers (SCCNFP) suggested that companies limit the maximum concentration of MIT to 0.01 percent, or 100 parts per million (ppm). U.S. companies, however, are not required to follow this guideline.
Another study found that exposure to MIT caused dermatitis, while a recent 2012 study found that brief exposure to MIT is toxic in low concentrations during neural development, increasing the risk of seizures and visual abnormalities. “Our findings,” stated the researchers, “combined with the fact that the long-term neurological impacts of environmental exposure to MIT have not been determined, suggest a need for a closer evaluation of the safety of MIT in commercial and industrial products.”
The Environmental Working Group (EWG) also states that MIT is a skin sensitizer and irritant, which means that it can cause contact allergies.
Cosmetic companies defend their use of this ingredient by stating that they use very low amounts, at around 15 ppm. They further claim that because the ingredient is in “rinse-off” products, any dangerous or toxic effects are washed down the drain. Meanwhile, you have a bacteria-free formula that lasts a long time on your shelf.
I don't know about you, but that doesn't really make me feel any better about using this stuff. The scientists themselves are saying we need more research to determine safety—in my book, that means, “stay away until we know more!”
Here's another quote from the first neurotoxic study I mentioned:
“Unfortunately, we have little or no information about the potential negative impact on the brain for many commonly used substances….The long-term consequences of low-level chronic exposure to isothiazolinones on the central nervous system have not been investigated.”
Besides, we don't need these toxic, skin damaging preservatives in our products.
Do you avoid MIT in your products?
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Photo courtesy Naturally You Skin Care via Flickr.com.
Shen Du, et al., “In Vitro Neurotoxicity of Methylisothiazolinone, a Commonly Used Industrial and Household Biocide, Proceeds via a Zinc and Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase-Dependent Pathway,” Journal of Neuroscience, September 1, 2002, 22(17): 7408-7416, http://www.jneurosci.org/content/22/17/7408.abstract.
Spawn A, et al., “Abnormal visual processing and increased seizure susceptibility result from developmental exposure to the biocide methylisothiazolinone,” Neuroscience, 2012 March 15;205:194-204, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22245758.